Written by Alex Taylor | 11/18/2023

Operating System (OS)

An Operating System (OS) is a fundamental software layer that manages computer hardware and provides services for computer programs. It acts as an intermediary between users and the computer hardware. Operating systems enable users to interact with the computer systems without needing to understand the language of the machine hardware.

Key Functions of an Operating System:

Resource Management

  • Processor Management (Scheduling): The OS decides order and time for the processes to be allocated to the CPU.
  • Memory Management: It keeps track of each byte in a computer's memory and manages the allocation and deallocation of memory spaces as needed by different programs.
  • Device Management: The OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. It performs the tasks of reading and writing data to hardware devices.

File System Management

  • Storage Management: The OS handles the persistent storage of data, ensuring data retrieval, and storage is efficient and reliable.
  • File Management: It provides a way to store files, access them, and manage the hierarchy of directories and subdirectories.

User Interface

  • Command-Line Interface (CLI) or Graphical User Interface (GUI): OS provides an interface for users to interact, either through commands or through a visual interface.

Security and Access Control

  • The OS ensures that unauthorized users do not access the system and protects against malware and other security threats.


  • Network Management: The OS handles the data transfer over networks and provides networking capabilities such as file sharing and printing.

Types of Operating Systems:

Batch Operating Systems

  • These systems allow for the batch processing of jobs without user interaction. Jobs with similar needs are batched together and run as a group.

Time-Sharing Operating Systems

  • These systems allow multiple users to access the computer at the same time by rapidly switching between them, giving the impression of direct access.

Distributed Operating Systems

  • These systems manage a group of distinct computers and make them appear to be a single computer.

Real-Time Operating Systems

  • These are used when rigid time requirements have been placed on the operation of a processor or the flow of data; thus, they are well-suited for real-time applications.

Network Operating Systems

  • These systems run on servers and provide the capability to serve data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions.

Examples of Operating Systems:

Desktop OS

  • Examples include Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux distributions (such as Ubuntu, Fedora), and Chrome OS.

Mobile OS

  • Examples include Android, iOS, and until recently, Windows Mobile and BlackBerry OS.

Server OS

  • Examples include Linux server distributions, Windows Server, and UNIX-based systems like Solaris.

Embedded OS

  • These are designed to be used in embedded computer systems and are resource-efficient and compact. Examples include VxWorks, Embedded Linux, and real-time operating systems (RTOS) for specific purposes.

Evolution of Operating Systems:

The evolution of operating systems is a continual process, responding to changing technology and user needs. From the early, simple systems that managed basic hardware operations, OS have grown into complex systems that manage vast networks and provide rich user interfaces. Modern operating systems support cloud computing, manage mobile devices, and incorporate artificial intelligence and machine learning for predictive management.

In conclusion, operating systems are crucial for the daily operation of almost all computing devices. They have evolved from simple, single-task programs to complex systems that manage multiple tasks simultaneously and provide a vast array of features and functions. As technology progresses, operating systems will continue to evolve, offering more features and becoming more integrated into the fabric of technology use.