Written by Christian Ahmer | 11/19/2023

NetBSD

NetBSD, much like FreeBSD, is a free and open-source Unix-like operating system descending from the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), but with its distinct focus and philosophy. It is renowned for its portability, simplicity, and adherence to clean design principles and standards.

Philosophy of NetBSD: Portability and Clean Design

NetBSD's slogan, "Of course it runs NetBSD," reflects its design goal to be highly portable, supporting a vast array of hardware platforms, from servers and desktop systems to embedded devices and even historical machines. This makes NetBSD a favorite among developers who need an operating system that can run on virtually any hardware.

The NetBSD Kernel

The NetBSD kernel is known for being lean and efficient, with a modular design that allows for a high degree of configurability. Its kernel provides support for a multitude of processor architectures, a testament to the project’s focus on cross-platform compatibility. The modularity also means that it can be trimmed down for embedded systems, making it a lightweight choice for applications where resources are at a premium.

File Systems in NetBSD

NetBSD supports various file systems, including those familiar to Unix-like systems such as ext2fs, FAT, NTFS, and NFS. While it may not have native support for more modern file systems like ZFS, it excels in being able to work with a variety of file systems, which is in line with its portability goal.

Networking and Security

NetBSD inherits the robust TCP/IP stack from the original BSD, ensuring reliable and performant networking capabilities. It also features security measures such as the kauth(9) framework, which is a flexible kernel authorization facility, and veriexec, a mechanism for maintaining file integrity against rootkits and other unauthorized changes.

Package Management with pkgsrc

pkgsrc is the native package management system for NetBSD, though it is also portable and can be used on other Unix-like operating systems. It provides a consistent and portable framework for the installation and management of over 20,000 software packages. It is designed to be straightforward and scriptable, which makes managing and building packages across various platforms and systems convenient.

Documentation and Support

NetBSD provides detailed documentation, which is available online and as part of the installed system, covering a broad range of topics from system installation to kernel internals. The community, while smaller than some other open-source projects, is dedicated and knowledgeable, contributing to the NetBSD project through development, testing, and providing user support.

NetBSD in Use

The design principles of NetBSD make it suitable for projects that require operating systems to run on a wide range of hardware. This includes server farms, where standardized software is needed across different hardware, and legacy systems where modern software support is scarce. It is also commonly used in academic research due to its clean codebase and extensive hardware support.

NetBSD's commitment to portability, design simplicity, and clean code makes it unique in the realm of operating systems. Its support for an extensive range of hardware, coupled with a strong security focus and effective package management, ensures its position as a valuable tool for users who value these characteristics.